Brief Chronological Catalogue of the Apostles and their Successors
The following chronology is from Matthew Carey’s 1801 quarto Bible.
IT is generally acknowledged, even by the Romish writers, that a church was founded here by St. Peter some considerable time before that at Rome; and partly because here it was that the venerable name of Christians first commenced. The fathers in the council at Constantinople under Nectarius, in their Synodicum to them at Rome, style the church of Antioch, The most ancient and truly apostolical; and S. Chrysostom, The head of the whole world. The succession of its bishops till the time of Constantine was as follows:
I. St. Peter the apostle, who governed this church at least seven years.
II. Euodius, who sat 23 years. In his time the disciples were first called Christians at Antioch.
III. Ignatius. After presiding near 40 years over this church, he was carried out of Syria to Rome, and there thrown to wild beasts in the theatre, Ann.Chr.110. Trajan.11.
IV. Heron, he was bishop 20 years: To him succeeded
V. Cornelius, who kept the place 13 years, dying Ann. Chr. 142.
VI. Eros, 26, or (as Eusebius says) 24 years.
VII. Theophilus, 13, a man of great parts and learning; many of his works were extant in Eusebius’s time, and some of them we still have at this day.
VIII. Maximinus, 13. He dying, the next chosen was
IX. Serapio, 25. Many of his works were mentioned by Eusebius and St. Hierom. To him succeeded.
X. Ascelepiades, a man of great worth and eminency, and invincible constancy in the time of persecution; he continued in this See 9 years.
XI. Philotus, 8.
XII. Zebinus, or Zebennus, 6 years.
XIII. Babylas, 13. After many conflicts and sufferings for the faith, he received the crown of martyrdom under Decius who commanded his chains to be buried with him.
XIV. Fabias, or (as the patriarch Nicephorus calls him) Flavius, possessed the chair 9 years. He was succeeded by
XVI. Paulus Samosatenus who sat in the chair 8 years, when for his unepiscopal manners, and practices , his unsound dogmata and principles, and especially his mean and unworthy opinions concerning our Saviour, he was condemned and deposed by a synod at Antioch, whose determination is at large extant in Eusebius.
XVII. Domnus succeeded in his place. He was constituted and ordained to the place by the fathers of that synod, who farther gave him this honourable character, that he was a man-endued with all episcopal virtues and ornaments. According to Eusebius, he held the see 6 years, and was succeeded by
XVIII. Timæus, who sat in the chair 10 years.
XIX. Xyrillus, who presided over that church according to Eusebius 24 years.
XX. Tyrænnus, he sate 13 years; in his time began the tenth persecution under Diocletian, which raged with great severity.
XXI. Vatalis 6.
XXII. Philogonius, 5, succeeded by
XXIII. Paulinus, or (as Nicephorus calls him) Paulus, who after five years was deposed and driven out by the prevalency of the Arian faction.
XXIV. Eustathius, formerly bishop of Beræa, a learned man, and of great note and eminency in the council of Nice, the first general council, summoned by Constantine the Great, after he had restored peace and prosperity to the church.
THE foundation of this church is equally attributed to Peter and Paul, the one a apostle of the circumcision, preached to the Jews; while the other probably, as the apostle of the uncircumcision, preached to the Gentiles. Its bishops succeeded in the following order:
I. St. Peter and Paul, who both suffered martyrdom under Nero.
II. Linus, son of Herculanus, a Tuscam; he is mentioned by St. Paul, and sat between 11 and 12 years.
III. Cletus, or Anacletus, a Roman, the son of Æmilianus, who sat 9 years.
IV. Clemens, a Roman, born in Mount Cælius, the son of Paustinus, near akin, say some, to the emperor: He was condemned to dig in the marble quarries near the Euxine sea, and by the command of Trajan thrown into the sea, with an anchor about his next. He was bishop of Rome 9 years, and 4 months.
V. Euaristis, by birth a Greek, but his father a Jew of Bethlehem. He is said to have been crowned with martyrdom the last year of Trajan, and in the ninth of his bishoprick.
VI. Alexander, a Roman, though young in years, was grave in his manners and conversation. He sat 10 years and 7 months and died a martyr.
VII. Xystus, or Sixtus, a Roman, he was martyred in the tenth year of his bishoprick, and buried in the Vatican.
VIII. Telesphorus, a Greek, succeeded; Justin the martyr flourished in his time. He died a martyr, having sat 11 years, and 3 months; and was buried near St. Peter in the Vatican.
IX. Hyginus, the son of an Athenian philosopher, was advanced to the chair under Antoninus Pius: He sat according to Eusebius 8 years.
X. Pius, an Italian, born at Aquileia: he died after being bishop 11 years and 4 months.
XI. Anicetus, born at Syria: He is said after 11 years, to have suffered martyrdom, and was buried in the Via Appia, in the cemetery of Callistus. In his time Polycarp went to Rome.
XII. Soter, or (as Nicephorus calls him) Soterichus, was a Campanian, the son of Concordius. There was an intercourse of letters between him and Dionysius bishop of Corinth. He died after he had sat 9 years.
XIII. Elutherius, born at Nicopolis, in Greece. To him Lucius king of Britain sent a letter and an embassy. He sat 15 years, died Ann. Chr. 186, and was buried in the Vatican.
XIV. Victor, an African, son of Felix, a man of a furious and intemperate spirit, as appeared from his passionate proceedings in the controversy about observation of Easter. He was bishop 10 years.
XV. Zephyrimus, a Roman, succeeded, and possessed the chair 8 years. He was a pious and learned man.
XVI. Callistus, or Calixtus, the son of Domitius, a Roman; a prudent and modest man. He suffered much in the persecution under Alexander Severus, under whom he became a martyr, being thrown into a well by the procurement of Ulpian the great lawyer, but severe enemy to christians. He sat 6 years, and though he made a cemetery, called after his own name, yet he was buried in that of Caledpodius in the Appian way.
XVII. Urbanus, the son of Pontianus, a Roman, after 6 years, suffered martyrdom for the faith. He was buried in Pretextatus his cemetery in the Appian way.
XVIII. Potianus, the son of Calphurnius, a Roman; for his bold reproving the Roman idolatry, he was banished into the island of Sardinia, where he died; he was bishop 5 years.
XIX. Anteros, a Greek, the son of Romulus. He died after he had kept his place one month, though others without reason make him to have lived in it many years, and was buried in the cemetery of Callistus.
XX. Fabianus, a Roman, was unexpectedly chosen bishop, for which several others being in competition, a dove suddenly descended, and sat upon his head, the great emblem of the holy spirit. He died a martyr after 14 years, and was buried in the same place with his predecessor.
XXI. Cornelius, a Roman, opposed and condemned Novation; frequent letters passed between him and Cyprian. After somewhat more than 2 years he was cruelly whipped, and then beheaded: he was buried in a vault within the grange of Lucina, near the Appian way.
XXII. Lucian, a Roman, sat 2 years, or, as others say, 3 years. He suffered martyrdom by the command of Valerian, and was buried in Callistus’s cemetery.
XXIII. Stephanus, a Roman, the son of Julius; great contests were held between him and Cyprian, about re-baptizing those who had been baptized by heretics. He was beheaded after he sat about 2 or 3 years and was buried with his predecessor.
XXIV. Xystus, a Greek, formerly a philosopher of Athens. After 2 years and 10 months he suffered martyrdom.
XXV. Dionysius, a monk, made bishop; in the judgment of Dionysius bishop of Alexandria, a truly learned and admirable person. The time of his presidency is uncertainly assigned, but is supposed to have been about 12 years.
XXVI. Felix, a Roman: in his time arose the Manichean heresy. He suffered about the fourth or fifth year of his episcopacy, and was buried in the Aurelian way, in a cemetery of his own, to miles from Rome.
XXVII. Eutychianus, a Tuscan, a man exceedingly careful of the burial of martyrs, after one year’s space was himself crowned with martyrdom.
XXVIII. Caius, or as Eusebius calls him, Gaianus, a Dalmatian, kinsman to the emperor Diocletian, and in the persecution under him became a martyr. After holding the See 11 years, he was beheaded, and buried in Callistus’s cemetery.
XXIX. Marcellinus, a Roman: through the fear of torment he sacrificed to the gods, but recovering himself, he died a martyr, after he had sat 8 or 9 years. He was beheaded, and buried in the cemetery of Priscilla, in the Salarian way. To him succeeded
XXX. Marcellus, a Roman: he was condemned by Maxentius the tyrant to keep beasts in a stable, which yet he performed with prayers and exercises and devotion. He died after 5 years and 6 months, and was buried in the cemetery of Priscilla.
XXXI. Eusebius, a Greek, the son of a physician. He suffered much under the tyranny of Maxentius. He sat 6 years and was buried in the Appian way, near Callistus’s cemetery.
XXXII. Miltiades, an African. He might be a confessor under Maxentius, but could not be a martyr under Maxaminus, as some report. He sat three or four years; and was buried in the cemetery of Callistus.
XXXIII. Silvester, a Roman. He was elected into the place, Ann. Chr. CCCXIV. Fetched from the mountain Soracte whither he had fled for fear of the persecution. He was highly in favour with Constantine the Great. He sat 23 years.
THE church of Jerusalem may in some sense be said to have been founded by our Lord himself, as it was for some time cultivated and improved by the ministry of the whole college of the apostles. The bishops of it were as follow:
I. S. James the Less, constituted bishop by the apostles: he was thrown off the temple, and knocked on the head with a fuller’s club.
II. Simeon, the son of Cleophas, brother to Joseph. He sat in this chair 23 years, and suffered martyrdom in the reign of Trajan, in the one hundred and twentieth year of his age.
III. Justus succeeded in his room, and sat 6 years.
IV. Zaccheius, or (as Nicephorus the patriarch calls him) Zacharias, 4.
V. Tobias; to him, after 4 years, succeeded
VI. Benjamin, who sat 2 year.
VII. John, who continued the same space.
VIII. Matthias, or Matthæus, 2 years.
IX. Philippus, one eyar; next came
X. Seneca, who sat 4 years.
XI. Justus, 4.
XII. Levy, or Lebes, 2.
XIII. Ephrem, or Ephres, or, as Epiphanius stiles him, Vaphres, 2.
XIV. Joseph, 2.
XV. Judas, 2. Most of these bishops we may observe to have but a short time, following one another with a very quick succession. This doubtless was in a great measure owing to the turbulent and unquiet humour of the Jewish nation, frequently rebelling against the Roman powers, whereby they provoked them to fall heavy upon them, cut off all that came in their way, making no distinction between Jews and Christians; as indeed they were all Jews, though differing in the rites of their religion. For hitherto the bishops of Jerusalem had successively been of the circumcision, the church there having been intirely made up of converts. But the Jews being dispersed after the destruction of Jerusalem, into all other countries, the Gentiles were admitted not only into the body of the church, but even into the Episcopal chair. The first whereof was
XVI. Marcus, who sat 8 years.
XVII. Cassianus, 8.
XVIII. Publius, 5.
XIX. Maximus, 4.
XX. Julianus, 2
XXI. Caianus, 3.
XXII. Symmachus, 2.
XXIII, Caius, 3.
XXIV. Julianus, 4.
XXV. Elias, 2. We do not find this bishop mentioned by Eusebius; but he is recorded by Nicephorus of Constantinople.
XXVI. Capito, 4.
XXVII. Maximus, 4.
XXVIII. Antoninus, 5.
XXIX. Valens, 3.
XXX. Dulichianus, 2.
XXXI. Narcissus, 4. He was a man of eminent piety, famous for the great miracles which he wrought; but not being able to bear the aspersion which some unjustly cast upon him, he left his church, and retired into the deserts and solitudes. In his absence was chosen
XXXII. Dius, who sat 8 years, After him
XXXIII. Germanio, 4.
XXXIV. Gordius, 5. In his time Narcissus, as one form the dead, returned from his solitudes, and was importuned by the people again to take the government of the church upon him; being highly reverenced by them for his strict and philosophical course of life. In this second administration he continued 10 years, and suffered martyrdom, when he was near 120 years old. To relieve the infirmities of his great age, they took in to be his colleague
XXXV. Alexander, formerly bishop in Cappadocia, who at that time had out of devotion taken a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. He was an eminent confessor, and after having sat 15 years, died in prison under the Decian persecution; by him Origen was ordained Presbyter: he was a great patron of learning as well as religion, a studious preserver of the records of the church: he erected a library at Jerusalem, which he especially furnished with the writings and epistles of ecclesiastical persons: and out of this treasury it was that Eusebius borrowed a great part of his materials for the composing of his history.
XXXVI. Mazabanes, 9 years.
XXXVII. Hymenæus, 23.
XXXVIII. Zabdas, 10.
XXXIX. Hermon, 9. He was, as Eusebius tells us, the last bishop of this See before that fatal persecution that raged even in his time.
XL. Macarius, ordained Ann.Chr.CCCXV. He was present in the great Nicene council. He sat, says Nicephorus of Constantinople, 20 years.
BYZANTIUM, afterwards called CONSTANTINOPLE
THIS church was at first founded by St. Andrew.
The succession of its bishops was as follow:
I. St. Andrew the apostle. He was crucified at Patræ in Achaia.
II. Stachy, whom St. Paul calls his beloved Stachys, ordained bishop by St. Andrew; he sat 16 years.
III. Onesimus, 14.
IV. Polycarpus, 17.
V. Plutarchys, 16.
VI. Sediceo, 9.
VII. Diogenes, 15.
VIII. Eleutherus, 7.
IX. Felix, 5.
XI. Athenorus, 4. He erected a church called Elea, afterwards much beautified and enlarged by Constantine the Great.
XII. Euzolus, 16.
XIII. Laurentius, 11 years, and 6 months.
XIV. Alypius, 13.
XV. Pertinax, a man of consular dignity; he built another church near the sea-side, which he called Peace. He sat 19 years and was succeeded by
XVI. Olympianus, 11.
XVII. Marcus, 13.
XVIII. Cyriacus, or Cyrillianus, 16.
XIX. Constantinus, 7. In the first year of his bishoprick he built a church in the north part of the city, which he dedicated to the honour of Euphemia the martyr who had suffered in that place. In this oratory he spent the remainder of his life quitting his Episcopal chair to
XX. Titus, who sat 35 years and 6 months.
After him came
XXI. Dometius, brother (as we are told) to the emperor Probus; he was bishop 21 years, and 6 months.
XXII. Probus succeeded his father Dometius, and sat 12 years. After him
XXIII. Metrophanes, his brother, who governed the church 10 years. In his time it was that Constantine translated the imperial court to Byzantium, enlarged and adorned it, called it after his own name, and made it the seat of the empire.
XXIV. Alexander succeeded: a man of great piety and integrity, zealous and constant in maintaining the truth against the blasphemies of Arius.
THE foundations of this church were laid, and a great part of its superstructure raised, by St. Mark. Its bishops and governors are thus recorded.
I. St. Mark the evangelist, who was martyred. Nicephorus of Constantinople makes him to sit 2 years.
II. Anianus, characterized by Eusebius, a man beloved of God, and admirable in all things. He ruled in that throne 22 years.
III. Avilius, 12, or, as Eusebius says, 13.
IV. Cerdo, succeeded about the first year of Trajan: he sat 10 years.
V. Primus, 12.
VI. Justus, or Justinus, 10.
VII. Eumenes, 10, or as Eusebius says, 13. S. Hierom in his translation calls him Hymenæus.
VIII. Marcus or Marcianus, 13.
IX. Caladrion, 10.
X. Agrippinus, 14.
XI. Julianus, 15.
XII. Demetrius, 21. He was a man of great zeal and piety, and underwent many troubles in the persecution at Alexandria. He was at first a great friend of Origen, but afterwards became his enemy; laying some irregularities to his charge, partly out of emulation at the great reputation which Origen had gained in the world; partly in that Origen had suffered himself to be ordained presbyter by two other bishops, Alexander bishop of Jerusalem, and Theoctistis of Cæsarea.
XIII. Heraclus, a man of philosophical genius, and educated under the institution of Origen. On the death of Demetrius he was advanced to the government of the church, the care wherof he took for sixteen years.
XIV. Dionysius, 17. He was one of the most eminent bishops of his time. In the persecution under Decius, he was banished first to Taposiries, a little town between Alexandria and Canopis; then to Cephro. And other places in the desarts of Lybia. But a large account of his own and other sufferings, with various transactions of those times, we have out of his letters yet extant in Eusebius: he died in the twelfth year of the emperor Gallienus.
XV. Maximus; of a Presbyter he was made bishop of Alexandria, and sat in that chair 18 years.
XVI. Thoams, 17. To him succeeded
XVII. Petrus, 12. He began his office 3 years before the last persecution. He was a man of infinite strictness and accuracy, and of indefatigable industry for the good of the church. He suffered in the ninth year of the persecution, with the loss of his head, gaining the crown of martyrdom: After whose death came in the prosperous and happy days of the church, Constantine the great turning the black and dismal scene of things into a state of calmness and serenity.
XVIII. Achillas, 9. By him Arius, upon his submission, was ordained presbyter.
XIX. Alexander, 23. Under him Arius began more openly to propagate his heresy at Alexandria, who was thereupon excommunicated and thrust out by Alexander, and shortly after condemned by the fathers of the council of Nice.